b"INTERNATIONAL WATERSHuge Pipeline, Huge Logistics Laying approximately 1,230 kilometers (764 miles)About half of the coated pipes are then transported to of a twin pipeline is a huge feat: the materials aloneKarlshamn, Sweden, and Hanko, Finland, so they are weigh 4.7 million metric tons. But as the Europeanstaged along the construction route.Union shifts its energy consumption toward natural gas to replace other non-renewable fuelsand toFrom the hubs, about 300 coated pipes are delivered bridge the trough when solar and wind energy isdaily to the pipelay vessels, where sections are laggingthe need to fill Europe's gas deficit haswelded one by one to the pipeline and laid on the made the project worth the effort. seabed. By late 2019, Nord Stream 2 will begin delivering gas for electrical plants and home heating Nord Stream 2 is constructing a pipeline acrossto customers in Belgium, the Czech Republic, the Baltic Sea to connect the gas fields of northernDenmark, France, Germany, the Netherlands, the Russiahome to about 15 percent of the world's gasUnited Kingdom and other countries.reservesto European buyers. To build the project, the pipeline company has created a green logistics concept around four hubs that make the supplyPipe Cross-Sectionchain as short as possible.Concrete coating According to the company, 150 million ($172(60-100 mm)million) worth of supplies for the pipeline have been sourced in the Baltic Sea region, and more than 90Corrosion protection percent of the supplies have been transported by(4.2 mm)ship or rail to minimize greenhouse gas emissions.Pipe joints are manufactured in Germany and RussiaPipe steel in 12-meter lengths and delivered to logistics(2741 mm)centers in Kotka, Finland, and Mukran, Germany, to be coated with concrete, which doubles their weightAntifrictionfrom 12 metric tons to 24 metric tons. CoatingPre-Pipelaying SurveyPipe Carrier Vessel A pre-lay survey performed before pipelinePipes weighing up to 24 tons eachinstallation confirms that no significantare shipped to the pipelay vessel fromchanges have occurred along the route sincea number of logistics hubs strategicallythe previous survey. located along the route.Post-Lay Survey As it touches down on the seabed,the pipeline is monitored to ensurethat it is correctly positioned.S-Curve As the pipeline is lowered to the seabed, it forms an S shape, which prevents damage during installation.ROV A remotely operated vehicle (ROV) fitted with sensors andStinger instruments including camerasThe stinger provides support transmits information from theto the pipeline as it isROVseabed to the survey vessel. progressively lowered to its designated place on the seabed. Nord Stream 2Whos Minding the Planet? 37"