b'FEATURE STORY WATER QUALITY The next level of a monitoring program wouldFederal agencies, Floridas Watershed Management incorporate water conditions that both promote andDistricts and other state agencies, private research respond to K. brevis growth. Water quality monitoringinstitutions, public universities and even citizen potentially provides predictive capabilities as wellscience groups deploy a number of technologies for as data that scientists use to understand biotic andwater quality monitoring, including YSIs EXO and abiotic factors involved in the formation and declinelegacy 6-series multiparameter sondes.of a red tide. This type of monitoring need not replace cell counts, and in fact is most powerful when used inPairing these technologies with data conjunction with them.loggers and telemetry, the data can be made available for public consumption The aims of a water quality monitoring program needin near-real-time, and can also be to be defined when choosing both the parametersused by researchers for and the approach to measuring them (e.g. via spotincorporation into their sampling or continuously-deployed multiparameterown studies. sondes), but in almost all algae bloom cases temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll are useful. The diagram that follows identifies common water quality parameters and why they might be of value for red tide monitoring. RED TIDE MONITORINGOptimal growth Pigment in thetemperatures for K. brevis nitrogen-fixing marineare 22-28C, though it can cyanobacteriumtolerate temperatures as Trichodesmium, which canlow as 5C and over 30C provide ammonium to fuel(strain-dependent)K. brevis growth pH often increases with The main photosyntheticTEMPERATURE increasing photosynthetic pigment in K. Brevisactivity due to consumptionand a popular indicatorof dissolved carbon dioxideof population growth;PHYCOERYTHRIN pHmeasured both in situand via satelliteProxy for increased biomass, and also for WHATsediments and soils CHLOROPHYLL TOTURBIDITY delivered viaMONITOR? runoff eventsThe preferred nitrogen source for K. brevis,AMMONIUM DISSOLVED followed by urea OXYGEN Can increase during periods and nitrate of peak photosynthetic activity SALINITY during the day, but decreases K. brevis prefers >25at night and can decrease ppt salinity; freshwaterprecipitously if a bloomincursions and mixingis dyingaffect salinity and may indicate runoff eventsWhos Minding the Planet? 23'