b"INTERNATIONAL WATERSFinlandThe Pipeline at a GlanceRussiaEstoniaSweden 1,230 kmLatviaBaltic Sea LithuaniaNord Stream 2 RouteNord Stream RouteRussia LandfallGermany Poland For illustration only.Nord Stream 2Carefully Routed In 1998, the Russian government's gas company,The underwater plan also allowed the pipeline Gazprom, and Finland-based energy companycompany to avoid laying pipe across villages, cities, Fortum charted the initial course of the currenthomes, fields and cultural heritage sites.pipeline in operation, simply called Nord Stream.At the time, engineers and scientists screened 2,500But the Nord Stream route, which also defined a path km 2(965 mi 2 ) of possible routes to connect thefor the current Nord Stream 2 project that recently gas fields of Russia to consumers in Europe. Theybegan construction, runs close to protected sites set determined that the best route cut through theaside for seal habitat. It also crosses throughBaltic Sea and Gulf of Finland.old minefields. The underwater approach is less costly than buildingThose special considerations, along with more onshore, because the speed of construction istypical pressure to minimize harm to water quality quicker. Underwater pipelines can also be operatedfrom construction, mean the Nord Stream 2 water at much higher pressure than terrestrial onesasmonitoring program is held to an extremelymuch as 220 bar (224 kilogram/cm 2or 3,191 psi) high standard.which allows the system to operate with no need for interim compression, lowering greenhousegas emissions. 36 MISSION: WATER"